Power & Energy Solutions

The premier renewable energy publication

24SEA has been involved in various projects over the last years all focussing on foundation monitoring. Typically, up to 10% of the foundations within offshore wind farms are equipped with a Foundation Structural Health Monitoring (FSHM) system, consisting mainly of installing accelerometers and strain gauges in the transition piece. In the recent projects, for both the Belgian wind farm Nobelwind and the UK wind farm Galloper, 24SEA teamed up with TUBS and Com&Sens, to equip monopiles with optical strain gauges over the entire length of the monopile. With this innovative set-up, the projects aim to better understand the subsoil dynamics and to validate new design methodologies for the soil structure interaction. In addition, the subsoil sensors can be used to access the lifetime directly near the critical welds and validate the concept of virtual sensing below the mudline, where strains over the entire substructure are predicted using accelerometers only. In this piece, we will discuss the first results obtained from the optical strain gauges installed on the monopile. Motivation Offshore wind turbines (OWTs) are some of the most dynamic civil structures. The substructures of OWTs are loaded by both wind and waves, and agitated by the rotations of the wind turbine on

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Over the past couple of years we have heard more and more about successful floating wind turbine projects. It seems there is huge potential for these floating wind farms. These structures bring with them numerous different security issues. PES brings you an update on the partnership between Orga and Sabik Offshore. It lights up the whole perimeter of the ‘Hywind’ wind farm and makes it visible to both marine vessels and aircraft alike. A unique wind project off the coast of Scotland Our oceans, with their vast uninhabited surfaces, have a great potential for creating wind energy. One of the challenges with offshore wind has been that turbines always had to be built on the ocean floor, in relatively shallow waters. This meant that close to 80% of the oceans wind power potential could not be used. In 2017 the offshore wind farm ‘Hywind’, off the coast of Scotland was opened. The Hywind farm – built by Statoil and Masdar - is the first commercially operational, floating wind farm. It brings us a step closer to unlocking the enormous potential of floating offshore wind parks across our oceans. A buoy as a source of inspiration The idea of floating wind turbines, came from a simple

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The global power cable provider NKT believes an even stronger focus on sustainability is emerging in the offshore industry to meet the global demand for renewable energy. The company is continuously investing in projects ensuring sustainability in all areas of its offshore operations and has already seen its energy efficient cable-laying vessel play an important part for customers and partners in the offshore industry. In a globalised and interconnected world, the need for power is constantly growing with a global focus on meeting the demand in a sustainable and efficient way. The transformation towards more sustainable energy production has a great impact on the offshore energy sector, with a growing focus on ensuring even more sustainable operations. As a turnkey provider of high-voltage cables systems to renewable energy projects in the offshore industry, NKT is now experiencing an increased interest in sustainability from partners operating in the industry. ‘We have seen a growing interest for sustainability in the entire supply chain from cable system design to production, installation and service from our partners in the offshore industry,’ says Andreas Berthou, Executive Vice President and Head of High-voltage Solutions in NKT. ’It is only natural with an increased focus on energy efficiency and sustainability and

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With increasing competitiveness of renewable energy compared to traditional forms of power production, Power Purchase Agreements are becoming attractive for both off-takers as well as power producers. However, PPAs bring along a new risk dimension requiring profound expertise in the wind energy business. Theresia Langosz-Römbell, Organisation Development, CSR & Communications Manager at Luxcara, provides PES with a glimpse into the new, wind energy world. It is no new story that wind conditions are even more difficult to predict than sun-shine. So far, under the feed-in tariff (FiT) or similar subsidised schemes, no target amount of produced energy was agreed. Strong wind leading to a peak in production did not cause any substantial problems in terms of remuneration. Since the FiT was guaranteed by national governments, the additional power was taken off with the same conditions as the average amount. And even short-term underperformance was no real cause for worry, as nobody relied on this specific amount of renewable energy. That is until now. We are leaving the FiT times behind. European countries are substantially reducing subsidisation. Leaving aside auctions ending at a price of zero, Spain is in the process of abolishing all kinds of subsidies of renewable energy. We are entering the age

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Is there anything that can be done to prevent or protect against corrosion? This is a question which preoccupies many in our industry. There are many types of corrosion, which in fact is a natural process, so it seems it’s like trying to hold back the tide. Is there anything that we mere humans can do to stop it? Jo van Montfort, director and coating specialist at Bjond, gives PES his expertise and thoughts on ‘atmospheric corrosion’. What is corrosion? As all material in the universe strives to return to its lowest energy state, pure metals, such as steel also strive to revert to their lowest energy state, which they were as sulphides or oxides. All man-made structures disintegrate until the lowest energy content is reached. A well-known example of this is corroding or rusting of steel, in which the energy that is supplied to make the steel out of ore is released again and the material disintegrates into rust. Unprotected, unalloyed steel or carbon steel exposed to a marine environment gets back to where it came from unless we add energy to it. This can be done e.g. by applying a protective coating for the parts above the water line. These parts

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We have said this before but how much lighter and more efficient can these heavy lift jack-up vessels get? PES brings you SOUL, the 4th generation of wind turbine installation vessels. After successfully launching their revolutionary heavy lift jack-up vessel design, SOUL-partners, SeaOwls and Ulstein, continued their mission to develop the optimal range of heavy lift jack-up vessels that will enable the offshore wind industry to bring down the cost of renewable energy. Different from the existing third generation fleet of wind turbine installation vessels (WTIVs), the SOUL heavy lift jack-up vessel design was conceived with the actual lifting operation from a stable-up platform, in mind. This design focus resulted in an unmatched heavy lift performance in terms of lifted load, reach and height for a jack-up vessel, when used for either afloat or firmly standing on its four legs. Existing WTIVs are either ‘ships with legs’ or ‘self-propelled jack-up barges’ and both design concepts have their own strengths and weaknesses. Legged ships have limited payload and lifting capacities due to their heavy structures and narrow gaps between portside and starboard legs. Jack-up barges, with propulsion, have their own sailing and seakeeping challenges. SOUL - the fourth generation of wind turbine installation vessels The SOUL

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PES is pleased to share this practical advice on saving time and money, in getting approval for wind farm projects, from Al Maiorino, the President of Public Strategy Group, Inc.,. This is based on his years of experience in successful and varied campaigns throughout the USA and abroad. Renewable project companies have moved light years in the past decade on their ability to educate residents on the benefits of renewable projects. However, there is more work to be done to ensure that wind and other renewable projects do not get entangled in a web of misinformation, and eventually delayed or even defeated. All too often, companies find that every single month a project is delayed, the renewable company loses thousands of dollars. Even a delay of a few weeks is costly, so keeping with a strict entitlement calendar is essential. This month, one such project blocked by the Scottish government was West Coast Energy’s Highland Perthshire wind proposal. The wind farm was in the pipelines for five years and had been scaled back from forty to twenty-five turbines in response to public outcry. The project would have been able to generate enough clean energy to power 40,000 homes and start a community

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Words: Sasaenia P. Oluwabunmi, Kayode E. Oluwabunmi & Athanasios J. Kolios Abstract: The development of adequate energy sources to satisfy the ever increasing energy demand in the world has led to the deployment of several offshore energy installations. Offshore Oil & Gas and renewable energy installations have had a lot of growth in recent years; this growth has led to an increase in the accompanying risks and challenges faced by these industries especially regarding policy implementation. Thus, it is pertinent to assess all the risks in the offshore energy industry, to create a ‘feed-in base’ applicable to both offshore renewables and offshore oil and gas industries. This paper analyses all the risks in the offshore energy industry in relation to policy through Failure Mode and Effects (FMEA) analysis using Risk Prioritisation Numbers (RPNs). 1. Introduction The offshore oil and gas sector generates around £20 billion of revenue per annum and £12.8 billion of Gross Value Added (GVA) whilst supporting induced, indirect and direct employment of more than 190,000 people; thus, making it one of the key sectors of the UK economy [1]. This scenario is true not only for the West but also for major emerging economies; for example, in Nigeria, offshore oil

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Words: Kristian Holm, VP Renewables & Utilities at Kongsberg Digital A typical wind turbine is equipped with a huge number of sensors, signal processors, and other types of monitoring equipment to ensure that it maintains its autonomous operations. These data points provide a myriad of data which can be used to optimise the operation of the turbine, cutting maintenance costs dramatically. Usually, sensor data are used to maintain normal turbine operation. Temperature sensors reduce or stop the wind turbine if the oil temperature in the gearbox exceeds a set permissible limit. Vibration sensors stop the turbine if the vibrations surpass a set permissible limit. However, these sensors do not simply maintain operations; they add a host of other options to the wind turbine, and these can be used for operational excellence. Did you know that in less than a second a single wind turbine can forward up to 1500 data signals that provide information about the turbine status? If you are really smart, you’ll use this information to define the current condition of the turbine. And if you are really, really smart, you’ll use it to predict the future condition or the remaining useful life of the turbine. Moreover, since wind turbines hold

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A PES exclusive from Steve Sawyer, GWEC Secretary General. This is his perspective on the options for a world using 100% renewable energy, based on research and years of experience in our industry. Ever since the oil shocks of the 1970s, and the early emergence of commercial wind turbines, solar hot water heaters, and the first solar PV panels, there has been speculation about what it would take to completely wean ourselves from fossil fuels. As far back as 1975 Danish physicist Bent Sørensen published a paper looking at a 100% renewable energy system for Denmark1. The visionary Dr. Amory Lovins came up with the term ‘soft energy path’ in 1976 to describe a future where energy efficiency and renewables gradually replace a centralized energy system based on fossil fuels and nuclear power. After the emergence of the threat of human-induced climate change in the late 1980s, the discussion got a bit more serious. Both solar and wind technologies had progressed somewhat during the intervening decade and a half, but were still expensive and small. The first fossil fuel free energy scenario was published by Greenpeace and the Stockholm Environmental Institute in 19932. But not even the most enthusiastic advocates of renewables would have

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