Power & Energy Solutions

The premier renewable energy publication

PES is delighted to bring you this latest advanced technology solution from ZF Wind Power. Over the last few years total wind turbine noise, which is mainly generated by the interaction of the wind and the wind turbine structure, has changed from being one of the properties of a wind turbine to a true differentiator between different wind turbine OEMs: the less noise the wind turbine generates, the more wind turbines can be placed on the same piece of land without violating the prevailing noise regulations. To achieve this, wind turbine OEMs are investigating among other things reducing overall noise levels by utilising optimised low noise blade design using e.g. serrations and improving controller strategies to include a wide variety of low noise modes. As the overall wind turbine noise is used to mask the noise coming from the mechanical components inside a wind turbine such as the generator and the gearbox, these noise sources also need to be optimised. The low noise blade designs, which are still being studied, have a direct impact on the overall wind turbine noise and thus require the mechanical noise to be reduced at the same pace. Next to that, the increased number of low

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Jose Vega-Lozano, Director at Aerial Vision Ltd, gives PES a thought provoking look in to the world of UAV providers. He suggests caution and questioning before deciding who to use: make sure your chosen company can deliver what you need and what you expect. There are many drone services out there, but which one is for you? Buyer beware One of the main benefits that the internet has brought to procurement, buying services and/or products, is that information is now freely available to the buyer, whereas before it was not. Previously, the vendor and his sales team often held the balance of power; in that the weight of knowledge between the buyer and the vendor was stacked massively in the salesman’s favour. Caveat emptor ‘Buyer Beware!’ was then sage advice. Nowadays buyers are often as knowledgeable as salesmen in a given situation; detailed research and meticulous analysis being usually only a few key strokes away thanks to the internet. But is this rebalancing of knowledge (and therefore buying power) true of the most modern, cutting edge and innovative products/services? Can a layperson really debunk charlatans and cowboys in the developing industry of UAS service provision? Or do you feel that you will

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PV energy has become indispensable for power companies. About 390 GW are installed around the world and a growth of 113 GW is expected this year. PES investigates the importance of monitoring. Why PV monitoring is important There are many reasons for the success of PV energy. It is decentralised, has a simple technology and, above all, it is cost-effective to produce. In fact it’s the most cost-effective way of generating energy. Most PV plants even pay for themselves thanks to feed-in tariffs, direct marketing, net-metering, and self-consumption. Thus, every hour of sunshine is worth hard cash, which needs to be ensured. PV energy is becoming more and more relevant. Real interest in solar PV power began about 20 years ago. Slowly but surely, the new technology for generating power from sunshine established itself. As it became more popular, the technology was optimised and became more efficient and durable. At the same time, the price for modules decreased, accelerating the spread of PV power. However, a growing PV market also means rising investments. More and more money from companies or private entities goes towards solar power generation and PV is becoming essential as a reliable power supply. It is critical, regardless of whether or not it

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Dirk Tegtmeyer, CEO Ingenieurbüro Mencke & Tegtmeyer GmbH, gives PES a short look into the near future and explains why quality is paramount as PV conquers the world and nobody can stop it. Even in Germany, where politicians tried to shut down PV installations and industry, the news gets better every year. The last tender for renewables saw a 32 to 0 for PV to wind energy. This is good for PV, but we should have wind in mind as well. The actual news says that Intersolar Germany is already booked out. And Fraunhofer ISE announces that PV energy is already cheaper than fossil energy in some installations in Germany. While Photovoltaic components become cheaper and cheaper, one has to think about the energy output. What will be main stream and what will become another part of PV industries? For residential houses it will be cheaper to install a small battery system for use of PV energy instead of buying from the utility companies. Using optimised control systems the energy drawn from the grid can be minimised to less than 20 % of the overall consumption. Together with new concepts of electric vehicles, with bidirectional charging, this step can get to

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Kipp & Zonen continue with their quest to improve the DustIQ, which can now be locally calibrated for the exact dust composition on site. This means the PV panels can be monitored 24/7 and cleaned whenever necessary. PES delves deeper to bring you the latest on this affordable and compact, cost saving, optical measuring tool. The maximum efficiency exhibited by solar cells has been incrementally improved over 150 years of scientific endeavour. But while photovoltaic technology continues to improve, the amount of power we can generate from solar cells is ultimately dictated by environmental factors. Primarily these are solar irradiance, temperature, and soiling. While the effects of solar irradiance and temperature are well-understood, the detrimental effects of soiling on solar panel performance often go overlooked. However, new technologies are making it easier than ever before to measure the effects of panel soiling on photovoltaic performance. Advances in increasing solar cell efficiency The world’s first photovoltaic device was created by Edmond Becquerel at the ripe old age of 19, while conducting experiments in his father’s laboratory.1 Edmond, the son of prolific electro-/bio-chemist Antoine Becquerel, found that a platinum electric I think they mean conductor coated with a thin layer of silver chloride could be

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Electroluminescence (EL) imaging, as a versatile tool for spatially resolved defect analysis on Si-solar cells, has recently gained a lot of traction in its industrial application. In this article we discuss quality control and process control abilities of this technology and how it is applied in solar cell production. We demonstrate how an IV tester-integrated solution is ideally suited to increase quality and yield and correlate the EL-data easily with IV results. Quality requirements for solar cells are constantly rising. Besides the current-voltage (IV) measurement as sole end of line quality control tool so far, it becomes necessary to detect deficiencies which do not significantly affect the IV measurement, such as e.g. cracks. The minority charge carrier concentration can be converted into the junction voltage [3], which is either governed by the above mentioned recombination processes or by series resistance between the current terminals and the position at which radiation is emitted. The spatially resolved intensity of light emission is captured by a CCD or CMOS camera, resulting in images in which defects appear as darker regions. Therefore, EL imaging is capable of visualising all defects induced by recombination as well as series or parallel resistance. Whereas, a lot of scientific work

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The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems continues to decrease, adding PV as a cost effective cleaner energy solution. While solar photovoltaic grid penetration increases worldwide, new technical challenges arises in the electric grid side. Little progress has been made to incorporate managing schemes in solar power systems to improve the utility management. PV growth, its drivers and implications to the grid However, many technological solutions have been presented to facilitate the grid side. For example, using bifacial PV modules setup vertically to shift the electric energy generation peaks to match the peak of electricity demand are currently under study and are now becoming attractive due to cost effectiveness of PV. Developments in electronic house hold appliances now also offer the possibility of connecting a device to the internet and communicate with the grid, realizing the concept of Smart Grids, in which interconnectivity and live data sharing between both the devices producing and consuming electricity allow a better understanding of demand and supply of electricity. Additionally, the storage systems, one of the missing links to the efficient solar power integration, are following the same trend as PV in terms of cost reduction, opening new possibilities for managing the energy sector. Managing the energy flow from

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24SEA has been involved in various projects over the last years all focussing on foundation monitoring. Typically, up to 10% of the foundations within offshore wind farms are equipped with a Foundation Structural Health Monitoring (FSHM) system, consisting mainly of installing accelerometers and strain gauges in the transition piece. In the recent projects, for both the Belgian wind farm Nobelwind and the UK wind farm Galloper, 24SEA teamed up with TUBS and Com&Sens, to equip monopiles with optical strain gauges over the entire length of the monopile. With this innovative set-up, the projects aim to better understand the subsoil dynamics and to validate new design methodologies for the soil structure interaction. In addition, the subsoil sensors can be used to access the lifetime directly near the critical welds and validate the concept of virtual sensing below the mudline, where strains over the entire substructure are predicted using accelerometers only. In this piece, we will discuss the first results obtained from the optical strain gauges installed on the monopile. Motivation Offshore wind turbines (OWTs) are some of the most dynamic civil structures. The substructures of OWTs are loaded by both wind and waves, and agitated by the rotations of the wind turbine on

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Over the past couple of years we have heard more and more about successful floating wind turbine projects. It seems there is huge potential for these floating wind farms. These structures bring with them numerous different security issues. PES brings you an update on the partnership between Orga and Sabik Offshore. It lights up the whole perimeter of the ‘Hywind’ wind farm and makes it visible to both marine vessels and aircraft alike. A unique wind project off the coast of Scotland Our oceans, with their vast uninhabited surfaces, have a great potential for creating wind energy. One of the challenges with offshore wind has been that turbines always had to be built on the ocean floor, in relatively shallow waters. This meant that close to 80% of the oceans wind power potential could not be used. In 2017 the offshore wind farm ‘Hywind’, off the coast of Scotland was opened. The Hywind farm – built by Statoil and Masdar - is the first commercially operational, floating wind farm. It brings us a step closer to unlocking the enormous potential of floating offshore wind parks across our oceans. A buoy as a source of inspiration The idea of floating wind turbines, came from a simple

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The global power cable provider NKT believes an even stronger focus on sustainability is emerging in the offshore industry to meet the global demand for renewable energy. The company is continuously investing in projects ensuring sustainability in all areas of its offshore operations and has already seen its energy efficient cable-laying vessel play an important part for customers and partners in the offshore industry. In a globalised and interconnected world, the need for power is constantly growing with a global focus on meeting the demand in a sustainable and efficient way. The transformation towards more sustainable energy production has a great impact on the offshore energy sector, with a growing focus on ensuring even more sustainable operations. As a turnkey provider of high-voltage cables systems to renewable energy projects in the offshore industry, NKT is now experiencing an increased interest in sustainability from partners operating in the industry. ‘We have seen a growing interest for sustainability in the entire supply chain from cable system design to production, installation and service from our partners in the offshore industry,’ says Andreas Berthou, Executive Vice President and Head of High-voltage Solutions in NKT. ’It is only natural with an increased focus on energy efficiency and sustainability and

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