Power & Energy Solutions

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Working at the world’s first take-back and WEEE compliance scheme for photovoltaic modules, PV CYCLE staffs are often confronted with the question of why pay for something that has not yet occurred. While about 9 million tonnes of photovoltaic – or PV – modules had been installed in Europe by the end of 2015, only an estimated 0.2% have become waste today. PV CYCLE – as the largest service provider in the market – has collected and treated the vast majority of these waste modules, coming from transport or installation damage as well as from severe weather conditions or warranty cases. More than 99% of today’s sold modules continue perfectly to generate green solar energy as expected. Yet, European authorities require that importers and manufacturers based in their countries foresee financial provisions for waste management based on the entire business volume that they sell into the market. Financing obligations can go from financial guarantees and trusts to clearing houses or waste fees at the time of sales. Some countries go as far as to combine trusts with reductions on feed-in-tariffs to ensure that the financing of collection, transport, treatment, recycling and disposal of end-of-life PV modules is truly guaranteed at

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What happen in 2016 and what can we expect in 2017 2016 was a record breaking year for solar in the Middle East. With record low tariffs on Dubai Electricity and Water Authority’s (DEWA) 800 MW Phase III project and Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority’s (ADWEA) Sweihan project, we could call it a successful year for large scale solar on the Arabian Peninsula. Record low tariffs below 3 US$ cents per kWh attracted worldwide press attention. These low prices have changed the perception of policymakers and industry leaders. It even led to a downward revision of the Feed-in tariff in Egypt and revives the debate of the usefulness of Feed-in tariffs versus competitive bidding in the MENA region. On an unsubsidized basis, solar PV without storage is now one of the cheapest sources of electricity available – it costs less than unsubsidized nuclear, LNG, and diesel used for off-grid power. Based on IRENA’s projections, solar PV LCOEs are expected to continue to decrease going forward, but whether it will continue to drop as rapidly is subject to debate. Rooftop solar kicked off in the UAE with approximately 6 MW up and running by the end of 2016. It is expected the rooftop

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As photovoltaics emerge as the leading generation source of the future, with installations topping wind for the first time in 2016, the underlying production machine has reached maturity. While relatively recently, in the early 2010’s, uncertainty remained around the prospects of competing photovoltaic technologies. Thin-film companies championed CIGS and CdTe as the materials of choice to sweep in an age of low-cost solar. Hitting the supply chain from two ends A brief stint of hype-driven venture capital poured into start-ups developing a range of organic photovoltaics, which they claimed would lead to multitudes of surfaces covered in photovoltaic material, for pennies. Others still envisioned a proliferation led by the combining optical systems with expensive, high efficiency, multi-junction cells in high concentration photovoltaic concepts. Despite strong commitments to research and development in these areas, the crash in polysilicon prices quashed these prospects and radically shifted the potential for disruption. As a result, only a handful of companies still pursue high concentration photovoltaics, with Canadian-based Morgan Solar only now installing its first large-scale project in Ontario, after 10 years of operation. Meanwhile, the last few organic photovoltaic developers have pivoted away from lofty dreams of omnipresent installations as 3GSolar and G24 Innovations target

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Celebrating its 10-year anniversary, Intersolar North America will once again be the first major solar event of the year. It takes place July 11-13 at the Moscone Center in San Francisco, and is co-located with ees North America and SEMICON West. These combined events bring together professionals from the solar, energy storage and semiconductor industries to share knowledge and innovation, network, and accelerate business goals. With its consistent growth to 18,000+ attendees in 2017, Intersolar North America is the most-attended solar event in North America. This year Intersolar will celebrate its 10th Anniversary in conjunction with its long time event partner California Solar Energy Industries Association (CALSEIA), also celebrating an anniversary – its 40th year of service to the California solar community. Intersolar, CALSEIA and SEMICON will party in grand style at the largest solar networking event ever at AT&T park, home of the San Francisco Giants major league baseball team. With the financial support it receives from Intersolar, this is CALSEIA’s largest fund raising event of the year. Intersolar is the solar event most trusted for its intent to foster innovation and curate high-quality speakers, exhibits and connections. From the biggest names in solar to startups, nonprofits, students and under-represented

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PES brings you previews to the Intersolar shows, kicking off with the Intersolar Europe and followed closely by Intersolar US. These shows reflect the expansion of solar energy across the globe and bring you the latest technology, innovation and a chance to meet the regular players in the market and new ones. Prepare to be wowed. Intersolar Europe 2017: Showcasing the future of the energy industry The international solar market is booming. Market researchers from Mercom Capital have put the global rise in photovoltaics for 2016 at 76 gigawatts. Southern Europe is one of the sunniest regions in the world, making it the perfect location to drive forward the global energy transition and further promote solar energy growth. And as the world’s leading exhibition for the solar industry and its partners, Intersolar Europe will serve as a source of inspiration from May 31–June 2, 2017 in Munich for manufacturers, distributors, service providers and suppliers. This year, Intersolar Europe will once again be accompanied by ees Europe, the continent’s largest and most visited exhibition for batteries and energy storage systems. At both exhibitions, the industry sheds light on topics such as energy generation, storage, grid integration and energy management, smart renewable energy

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Driven by the accuracy requirements of the solar renewable energy industry, solar radiation measurement reaches the next level. Sensor technology is improving, user access to calibration is getting easier, practices for instrument maintenance and measurement uncertainty evaluation are now being standardised. Hukseflux Thermal Sensors, a technology leader in this field, is actively involved. The weakest link Until now, measurement of solar radiation has often been often the weakest link in PV system performance assessment. The equipment used for this, pyranometers, is an optical instrument. Their measurement uncertainty under perfect conditions is in the 2 to 3 % range. However, conditions at a solar power plant are frequently imperfect. A major error source is instrument fouling, for example by dew, frost, rain or dirt. The frequency of pyranometer maintenance is often low. To reduce the impact of fouling, cleaning is essential, but it may not be part of the standard maintenance program. Recalibration, the most common way of verifying the true performance of the instrument, may only happen from time to time. The overall result of this lack of cleaning and calibration is a much larger measurement uncertainty than that under perfect conditions; typically no better than 5 %.

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New multi-megawatt solar installations are growing rapidly, which is great news for the environment and the economy. With that growth comes falling prices, both for power purchase agreements (PPAs) and solar gear including PV modules, inverters and other equipment. But what about the people reading this article who got into large scale solar earlier in the game, with PV plants now between five and ten years old, or perhaps even older? How are your PV assets performing now? It’s quite likely there is significant untapped potential in those assets that could provide you increased returns on your existing portfolio by boosting yield and decreasing operating costs. There is sound science behind how you can do so, the application of which will have some very significant economic benefits. Turning your central inverter into a string inverter One of the great debates in the solar industry at the moment is the one over central versus string inverters. Settling this debate is beyond the scope of this article. What is in the scope of this article is explaining that one of the arguments string inverter advocates make in favor of their application is their more granular maximum power point tracking or MPPT. For those unfamiliar with

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Six years ago, ZF Wind Power took the challenge to set the benchmark in the industry pioneering wind gearboxes to power the new giants of the sea. The project started with an early cooperation between the customer and ZF with one main focus: reliability. Dr. Dirk Strasser, Manager Wind Gearbox Design at ZF Wind Power, Witten, shares his reflections with PES, on the project from an engineering perspective and points out the resultant benefit for the customer.. Development projects for the wind industry usually are characterised by short development times and gearboxes developed to specification. The 8 MW development started with a different focus. A reliable drivetrain at competitive costs was the objective, with reliability being recognised as one of the most important contributors to the turbine’s competitiveness. Before starting detail design, ZF cooperated closely with the customer in order to cover all gearbox requirements in the interface specifications. This means, on the one hand, a sound mechanical design on the rotor side, delivering a mechanical torque of minimum 8,000 kNm whilst keeping parasitic loads small, and on the other hand, meeting mechanical and electrical requirements on the generator side prescribed by the integrated drivetrain layout.

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Words: Al Maiorino It seems the US is finally being blown away with the idea of wind power. At last traditional forms of energy are being reviewed and clean, sustainable wind energy is being taken seriously. There is to be a 200 turbine windfarm off the coast of Long Island. “Today is a big day for clean energy in New York and our nation. Governor Cuomo has set a bold vision for a clean energy future, and this project is a significant step toward making that a reality. The South Fork Wind Farm will be the second offshore wind farm in America, and it’s largest. There is a huge clean energy resource blowing off our coastline just over the horizon, and it is time to tap into this unlimited resource to power our communities.” said Deepwater Wind CEO, Jeffrey Grybowski, in an empowering speech following the approval of a revolutionary project. In light of much discussion over climate change, it has become imperative to reassess conventional forms of energy sources such as fossil fuels and make changes. There is a need to provide energy that is replenished naturally, offers climate change mitigation, and adds economic benefits on various levels. In response

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PES invited award-winning Scottish technology company PhotoSynergy Ltd (PSL) to give us an insight in to their suite of new products, produced in response to industry led requests to find practicable, cost-effective solutions in a variety of sectors where safety of life is paramount. The company, in collaboration with a number of key technology partners, continues its focus on increased safety and productivity through innovative forms of illumination based broadly on its ground-breaking LIGHTPATH™ technology, a fibre lighting system offering an innovative technical solution. In January this year, PSL and Livingston-based WFS Technologies launched the Seatooth LIGHTPATH™, an on-demand wireless ribbon lighting system designed to revolutionise diver safety and efficiency in remote subsea locations. The system is a combination of two advanced technologies – WFS’s Seatooth, a subsea wireless communication system that can download and log information gathered on subsea installations remotely and PSL’s LIGHTPATH™, a side-emitting flexible fibre that projects a continuous line of light that carries no electrical power – and works for both diver and ROV operators, working either near surface, or at depths of up to 3,000m. The light is engaged automatically when the diver or the ROV comes within 5m of a structure, and provides

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