Power & Energy Solutions

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The offshore wind turbine installation market has matured significantly over the last decade. For the inexperienced observer, or even for some of the seasoned offshore professionals, the applied installation methods in Europe are all more, or less the same. However, only few of the existing installation vessels will be suitably equipped to meet the demands of the next generation turbines. To avoid an installation bottleneck, designers and equipment suppliers will remain focussed on purposeful innovation. Wind turbine manufacturers will be eager to explain the big differences between their own and competitors’ turbines. The installation contractors bring their own expertise to the job and will confirm that every single installation site, and even every single turbine location can be vastly different. Also the designers of the installation jack-ups with dedicated cranes are always keen to point out the different capabilities between the units. Nonetheless, from a global perspective, insights gained over the last decade have led to convergence in applied methods and technology. As long as none of the input parameters such as turbine sizes, environment, logistical infrastructure radically changes, it will be extremely difficult for innovative concepts to enter the market. Why is this the case? • Developers have mastered the process

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Support structures of wind turbines have already been in serial production for a long time. There are now some 1,350 turbines installed in the German North Sea and Baltic Sea alone. The large dimensions, the high dynamic loads, and the specific environmental conditions offshore pose particular challenges and establish the limits of what design codes cover. Despite this, support structures have only suffered minimal serious damage to date, which means that there may still be untapped potential for making these structures even more streamlined. Cost pressures demand that these reserves be quantified more precisely and that potential be identified. Large-scale tests in particular allow the construction and design to be rendered more customized and thus more efficient. Since 2014, large-scale components and parts have been analyzed and tested and, in turn, design bases and approaches validated in the Test Center Support Structures in Hanover. This article summarizes the key findings from recent project work. 1 Developments and trends 1.1 Supporting structures: versions and their potential An end to the growth in the size of wind turbines is not yet in sight. Indeed, leading turbine manufacturers are poised to start producing models in the 10 MW plus class. Increasing hub heights, rotor diameters, and

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Abstract: The continuing increase in rotor diameters is pushing the structural load-carrying capabilities of turbine blades to the limit. In order to ensure reliability and structural integrity, representative testing and validation methods are now more important than ever before. Development in wind turbine blades Wind turbine manufacturers are continuing to increase rotor diameters with the aim of boosting annual energy production (AEP). Due to the high installation costs per turbine, this is especially true for offshore blades, but onshore turbines are also increasing in size, as multi-megawatt turbines are being developed for lower wind speeds. Direct scaling of blade dimensions would result in a cubic relationship between blade mass and blade length. However, this is certainly too conservative for some areas of the blade, for example the skin panels, which need to scale with the blade surface area. Thus, a theoretical scaling exponent below three is expected. In the past, this ‘square-cube law’ has repeatedly been beaten due to both design and material innovations, and scaling factors between 2.2 and 2.4 have been reported. This illustrates how structural load carrying capabilities are pushed to the limits. Put simply, mechanical loads on wind turbine blades can be categorized into flapwise loads, which

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This is the final PES interview of 2019 with Hans Gatzemeier, the CEO at ELA Container Offshore. It has been a great pleasure to learn more about this successful German company. It has grown through listening to the customer, innovation and being able to rise to the challenge of globalisation. The future looks bright as we move into 2020 and a buoyant offshore market. PES: Hi Hans welcome back to PES Wind. It’s great to be continuing this series of interviews about ELA Container Offshore. We are really getting to know the company and its values. Your production is ‘Made in Germany’, we would like to explore that a little further. Which part of your containers does this refer to why is this so important to you? Hans Gatzemeier: It’s great to be back. Well, although our accommodation containers have been purpose built in Germany to our specific requirements and highest standards, ‘Made in Germany’ to me is more than that. Rather than only using German suppliers and equipment, I feel it is a state of mind that focuses on engineering the best possible solutions, using dedicated suppliers and the best possible components. As such, our procurement team sources equipment and services

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Damen Shipyards Group has established a firm foothold in the European offshore wind sector over the last decade. Now the Dutch shipbuilding and maritime services company is turning its attention to the emerging market of the American offshore wind industry. Here Damen’s Director Business Development & Market Intelligence, David Stibbe and Area Manager North America, Daan Dijxhoorn, discuss some of the main issues involved in the development of offshore wind in American waters, and the way that Damen is tailoring both its services and portfolio to meet American requirements. The fact that the offshore wind industry has its roots firmly planted in Europe is an undisputed fact. In the league table of installed power generation capacity, the UK, Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands hold the top four positions. The last five years, in particular, have seen a massive increase in installation and commissioning of new wind farms. The most notable trend is one of expansion: offshore wind farms are not only getting larger, they are also being built further out to sea in deeper, rougher waters. On top of that, components are getting bigger. While ten years ago the typical capacity for an offshore wind turbine was around 3MW, today all

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WindEurope Offshore 2019 is where the journey begins. Taking place on 26th to 28th November, the Copenhagen event will gather the entire offshore wind industry as it prepares to scale up to meet the Paris Agreement. PES brings you a comprehensive preview to this key event. Offshore wind is set to play a major role in the world’s energy mix, according to a new report from the International Energy Agency (IEA). In its ‘Offshore Wind Outlook 2019’, the IEA predicts that global offshore capacity may rise 15-fold by 2040. In the wake of this announcement by the IEA, Europe’s largest offshore wind conference and exhibition will take place in Copenhagen’s Bella Center. WindEurope Offshore 2019 will attract more than 9,000 visitors and playing host to over 400 exhibitors. With offshore wind staking a claim to ever more of the globe’s energy mix, the decision to host this event in Copenhagen was easy. Unlocking the full potential of European offshore wind will require vision and commitment, and Denmark is setting an ambitious example for other countries to follow. Across Europe, Denmark has the highest share of wind energy in its electricity demand – 41% last year – and is home to many of

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Here at PES we are delighted to bring you our review of the first ever Wind Energy Asia. Wind energy is growing rapidly in Asia, our clients are already excited about it. This event has been met with enthusiasm and it’s set to be a great annual show, a chance to meet up and network with prospective collaborators in a new market venture. ‘This is exactly the type of show I want to come to! It’s not the largest, but no school kids stuffing bags with brochures, and the quality of the meetings? Wow! Excellent!’ said Giordano Toninelli, Sales Manager at FACCIN SpA sitting in his booth on the trade show floor. And this pretty much summed up the feeling of the vast majority of attendees, exhibitors, visitors, both to the exhibition and the forum of the Asia-Pacific Wind Energy Expo 2019. Held for the first time in the Kaohsiung Exhibition Center in Kaohsiung, South Taiwan in March this year, the event provided a great platform for B2B discussions, recruitment of employees, industry information-gathering, search for local partners, policy discussions with high level government officials and last but not least to have a drink with your peers in a relaxed networking event

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How does the offshore wind service and accommodation industry keep up with operators’ requirements? The industry has changed over the years and now wind farms are farther and farther from the shore, making accommodation an even more important focus for employers, who want to make sure their highly skilled workers are well rested and relaxed, whilst on site for longer periods of time. PES asked C-bed’s Managing Director, Jesper Nielsen how his company has evolved over the years. PES: It’s great to have you back with us at PES and have the opportunity to catch up on the developments at C-bed. Jesper Nielsen: Thank you, it’s great to be with you again. PES: So, just what is the secret behind reaching the 25 projects mark? JN: I believe, the secret is a mix of experience, knowledge and the right people. The experience comes from pioneering the market in 2008. We saw a gap in the market for offshore accommodation, as wind farms gradually gained distance from the shore and over 100 installation technicians were transported by small vessels to and from remote sites. Our idea was simple: we would convert a ferry into an offshore hotel which would then be anchored

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The steel structures, which make up a wind farm, need protection. Importantly, those offshore need a specific type, because without the correct coating corrosion occurs. This weakens and shortens the lifespan of the parts. Jo van Montfort, from Bjond, explains to PES why the choice of coating should be made by an expert, based on experience and not just lab tests. Main function of a coating The most important characteristic of an organic coating: paint is to form a barrier between the steel to be protected and the environment. Functional loss of the barrier effect leads to corrosion of the substrate depending on the circumstances. On average, it can be assumed that unprotected steel corrodes at a velocity of between 0.2 and 0.8mm per year and under specific marine conditions it can be even up to a few millimetres per year. It is very important for an asset owner or maintenance manager to understand which parameters influence the lifetime of a coating system. Metallic coatings Next to organic coating systems also metallic coatings: e.g. Thermal Sprayed Aluminium/TSA are used. The costs for a TSA coating are significantly higher (>20%) than a conventional organic paint. If a metallic, inorganic, coating is used, the covered steel

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The growth of wind energy is exceptional, both in terms of installations and physical size. In Europe alone, it’s predicted to overtake gas installations and become the largest form of power generation by 2020, supported firmly by a mammoth addition of 4.9GW in capacity during just the first half of 2019. Meanwhile, the size of wind turbines has reached incredible heights, with LM Wind Power unveiling the world’s longest blade at a staggering 107 meters in length (McPhee, D. 2019). Therefore, the importance of a high-quality and easy-to-apply Leading Edge Protection (LEP) coating has never been more important to keep up with the demand from this blossoming industry. Precipitation and power generation Although it may seem innocuous, the impact of debris and weather, particularly rain, on a blade can cause considerable damage. Using some rudimentary mathematics, the impact pressure of rain droplets can be estimated using modified water hammer equations. Based on a 2mm diameter droplet and an 80m/s tip speed, the pressure imparted by the raindrop is estimated at 120MPa. This value is already higher than the yield stress quoted for some blade materials. This type of damage manifests itself as pitting on the blade’s surface, especially on the leading edge, where

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